The Florida Justice Association is an organization dedicated to strengthening and upholding Florida's civil justice system and protecting the rights of Florida's citizens and consumers.

We passionately believe that all Floridians benefit when deserving individuals have a fair chance to seek justice in our state's courts and that Florida's consumers are made safer when large corporations and industries are held to a high ethical standard and accept fair responsibility for their actions.

FJA works in the legislative, political and media arenas to ensure that Floridians know and understand the importance of their legal rights and to make certain that these rights, which are at the very core of what it means to be American, are safeguarded and protected.

Supporting documentation for the 2015 FJA Issues Book

General Information

  • History of Tort Law in Florida, 1975-2013 (prepared by the FJA)
            [view or download]

Insurance Bad Faith

  • Insurance Company Bad Faith position paper (prepared by the FJA)
            [view or download]
  • Article on Insurance Company Bad Faith from the Florida Bar Journal
            [view or download]
  • Background of Insurance Company Bad Faith (prepared by the FJA)
            [view or download]
  • 50 State Survey of Bad Faith Law (prepared by an outside source)
            [view or download]

Auto Mandatory Bodily Injury Insurance

  • Mandatory Bodily Injury Liability Insurance position paper (prepared by the FJA)
            [view or download]
  • Auto insurance requirements by state (prepared by the Insurance Information Institute)
            [web source]
    ; [chart below]
AUTOMOBILE FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY LIMITS AND ENFORCEMENT BY STATE
 
State Insurance required (1) Minimum liability limits (2) Insurer verification of insurance (3)
AL BI & PD Liab 25/50/25 c, d
AK BI & PD Liab 50/100/25 a
AZ BI & PD Liab 15/30/10 a, b
AR BI & PD Liab, PIP 25/50/25 b, d
CA BI & PD Liab 15/30/5 (4) a, b, d
CO BI & PD Liab 25/50/15 a, d
CT BI & PD Liab 20/40/10 a
DE BI & PD Liab, PIP 15/30/10 a, b, c, d
DC BI & PD Liab, UM 25/50/10 a, c, d
FL PD Liab, PIP 10/20/10 (5) a, d
GA BI & PD Liab 25/50/25 a, d
HI BI & PD Liab, PIP 20/40/10 a
ID BI & PD Liab 25/50/15 none
IL BI & PD Liab, UM 20/40/15* a, b, c
IN BI & PD Liab 25/50/10 a
IA BI & PD Liab 20/40/15 a
KS BI & PD Liab, PIP, UM,UIM 25/50/10 a,c
KY BI & PD Liab, PIP 25/50/10 (5) a, d
LA BI & PD Liab 15/30/25 a, d
ME BI & PD Liab, UM, UIM  50/100/25 (6) b
MD BI & PD Liab, PIP (7), UM, UIM 30/60/15 a
MA BI & PD Liab, PIP, UM, UIM 20/40/5 a, d
MI BI & PD Liab, PIP 20/40/10 a
MN BI & PD Liab, PIP, UM, UIM 30/60/10 a, c
MS BI & PD Liab 25/50/25 a, d
MO BI & PD Liab, UM 25/50/10 a, c, d
MT BI & PD Liab 25/50/10 d
NE BI & PD Liab, UM, UIM 25/50/25 a, b, d
NV BI & PD Liab 15/30/10 a, d
NH FR only, UM 25/50/25 (6) a
NJ BI & PD Liab, PIP, UM, UIM 15/30/5 (8) a, d
NM BI & PD Liab 25/50/10 a, c
NY BI & PD Liab, PIP, UM 25/50/10 (9) a, d
NC BI & PD Liab, UM, UIM (10) 30/60/25 a, d
ND BI & PD Liab, PIP, UM, UIM 25/50/25 c
OH BI & PD Liab 25/50/25 a, c
OK BI & PD Liab 25/50/25 a, c, d
OR BI & PD Liab, PIP, UM, UIM 25/50/20 a, c
PA BI & PD Liab, PIP 15/30/5 a
RI BI & PD Liab 25/50/25 (5) c
SC BI & PD Liab, UM 25/50/25 a, d
SD BI & PD Liab, UM, UIM 25/50/25 a
TN BI & PD Liab 25/50/15 (5) a, d
TX BI & PD Liab 30/60/25 a, d
UT BI & PD Liab, PIP 25/65/15 (5) d
VT BI & PD Liab, UM, UIM 25/50/10 c
VA BI & PD Liab (11), UM, UIM 25/50/20 a, b, c, d
WA BI & PD Liab 25/50/10 a
WV BI & PD Liab, UM 25/40/10 a, d
WI BI & PD Liab, UM, UIM 25/50/10 a
WY BI & PD Liab 25/50/20 c, d

(1) Compulsory Coverages:
      BI Liab=Bodily injury liability
      PD Liab=Property damage liability
      UM=Uninsured motorist
      PD=Physical damage
      Med=First party (policyholder) medical expenses
      UIM=Underinsured motorist
      PIP=Personal Injury Protection. Mandatory in no-fault states. Includes medical, rehabilitation, loss of earnings and funeral expenses. In some states PIP includes essential services such as child care.
      FR=Financial responsibility only. Insurance not compulsory.
(2) The first two numbers refer to bodily injury liability limits and the third number to property liability. For example, 20/40/10 means coverage up to $40,000 for all persons injured in an accident, subject to a limit of $20,000 for one individual, and $10,000 coverage for property damage.
(3) a. Insurer must notify Department of Motor Vehicles or other state agency of cancellation or nonrenewal.
      b. Insurer must verify financial responsibility or insurance after an accident or arrest.
      c.Insurer must verify randomly selected insurance policies upon request.
      d. Insurers must submit entire list of insurance in effect, which may be compared with registrations at a state agency. Also known as a computer data law. Also includes cases where insurers are required to report new issues and/or renewals.
(4) Low-cost policy limits for low-income drivers in the California Automobile Assigned Risk Plan are 10/20/3.
(5) Instead of policy limits, policyholders can satisfy the requirement with a combined single limit policy. Amounts vary by state.
(6) In addition, policyholders must also carry at least $2,000 for medical payments.
(7) May be waived for the policyholder but is compulsory for passengers.
(8) Basic policy (optional) limits are 10/10/5. Uninsured and underinsured motorist coverage not available under the basic policy but uninsured motorist coverage is required under the standard policy.
(9) In addition, policyholders must have 50/100 for wrongful death coverage.
(10) Mandatory in policies with UM limits exceeding 30/60.
(11) Compulsory to buy insurance or pay an Uninsured Motorists Vehicle (UMV) fee to the state Department of Motor Vehicles.

*Effective January 1, 2015, Illinois’ limits will rise to 25/50/20.

Source: Property Casualty Insurers Association of America; state departments of insurance and motor vehicles.

The chart above provides a state-by-state overview of minimum auto liability limits and the insurance required by state law. Coverages that may be rejected by the policyholder, either in writing or verbally (i.e., are not mandatory) have been excluded.
 

Expert Witness Testimony/Daubert

  • Expert Witness Admissibility position paper (prepared by the FJA)
            [view or download]
  • Article on Frye v. Daubert debate (prepared by the FJA)
            [view or download]
  • Frye v. Daubert comparison (graphic)
            [view or download]
      
  • Delaware Daubert Study - This study is cited by the proponents of implementing the Daubert test in Florida. The study was funded by big Pharmaceutical companies who are pushing the Daubert legislation.
            [view or download]
  • "The Darker Side of Daubert," by Ned Miltenberg
            [view or download]
  • "Daubert and the Disappearing Jury Trial," by Allan Kanner
            [view or download]
  • "Attorney Abuses of Daubert Hearings: Junk Science, Junk Law, or Just Plain Obstruction?," by Thomas G. Gutheil, MD, and Harold J. Bursztajn, MD
            [view or download]
  • "The Daubert Trilogy in the States," by David E. Bernstein and Jeffrey D. Jackson
            [view or download]
  • "What Has a Decade of Daubert Wrought?," by Margaret A. Berger, JD
            [view or download]
  • "Out of the fire and into the Fryeing pan or back to the future," by Ned Miltenberg
            [view or download]
  • "Daubert in the States: Diffusion of a New Approach to Expert Evidence in Court," by Herbert M. Kritzer and Darryn C. Beckstrom
            [view or download]
  • Chart of Frye cases (prepared by the FJA)
            [view or download]

Wrongful Death Loophole - Medical Malpractice

  • Wrongful Death Loophole position paper (prepared by the FJA)
            [view or download]
  • Wrongful Death statutes by state (prepared by an outside source)
            [view or download]

Limitaions in Medical Payments (LIMP)

Medical Malpractice

  • Arbitration Position Paper (prepared by the FJA)
            [view or download]
  • Exparte Position Paper (prepared by the FJA)
            [view or download]
  • Clear and Convincing Standard of Evidence Position Paper (prepared by the FJA)
            [view or download]
  • Hasan v. Garvar
            [view or download]
  • Chart of profits by medical malpractice insurers based on companies' annual reports, 2003-2010 (prepared by the FJA)
            [view or download]
  • Chart of civil filings in Florida, based on the Florida Office of the State Courts Administrator (prepared by the FJA)
            [view or download]
  • Summary of medical malpractice tort system in Florida (prepared by the FJA)
            [view or download]
  • Some Truths About Florida's Tort System (prepared by the FJA)
            [view or download]
  • Florida Office of Insurance Regulation's 2012 Annual Report
            [view or download]
  • "Study Finds No Progress in Safety at Hospitals," New York Times, by Denise Grady
            [view or download]

Elder Care Reform Legislation

  • Opis Fix/Access to Records of Nursing Home Residents
            [view or download]
  • History of Nursing Home laws in Florida
            [view or download]
  • Tort issues in Senate Bill 1202 (2001) (prepared by the FJA)
            [view or download]
  • Legislative Summary for Senate Bill 1202 (2001) (prepared by Florida Legislature)
            [view or download]
  • Senate Bill 1202 reference chart (prepared by The Coalition to Protect America’s Elders)
            [view or download]
  • "Once pride of Florida; now scenes of neglect," Miami Herald, 2011
            [view or download]
  • "A history of violence ends in fiery rampage," Miami Herald, 2011
            [view or download]
  • "Wandering resident meets a grisly end," Miami Herald, 2011
            [view or download]
  • "Toxic sore fatally undetected," Miami Herald, 2011
            [view or download]
  • "Protecting yourself and your loved ones," Miami Herald, 2011
            [view or download]
  • "The I-Team Miami Herald reporters," Miami Herald, 2011
            [view or download]
  • "Assisted-living facility caretakers unpunished: ‘There’s a lack of justice’," Miami Herald, 2011
            [view or download]
  • "Key medical logs doctored, missing," Miami Herald, 2011
            [view or download]
  • "Beloved ‘abuela’ tied up, and later died," Miami Herald, 2011
            [view or download]
  • "Frustrated deputies find a way to shut down home," Miami Herald, 2011
            [view or download]
  • "Case closed in woman’s death, but records tell another story," Miami Herald, 2011
            [view or download]
  • "At homes for the mentally ill, a sweeping breakdown in care," Miami Herald, 2011
            [view or download]
  • "Violence becomes a way of life — and an exercise in survival," Miami Herald, 2011
            [view or download]
  • "Despite a litany of problems, troubled homes remain open," Miami Herald, 2011
            [view or download]
  • "Rosalie Manor’s new owner works to tame ‘uncontrolled chaos’," Miami Herald, 2011
            [view or download]
  • "Task force pushes some ALF reforms, delays others," Miami Herald, 2011
            [view or download]
  • "Some ALFs pay kickbacks for residents, task force told," Miami Herald, 2011
            [view or download]
  • "Time to ban ALF caregivers who abuse, state is told," Miami Herald, 2011
            [view or download]
  • "Governor’s task force to shape future of assisted living facilities," Miami Herald, 2011
            [view or download]
  • "Senate panel demands answers to crisis in ALF care," Miami Herald, 2011
            [view or download]
  • "Finding more filth, abuse, state moves to shut ALFs," Miami Herald, 2011
            [view or download]
  • "Miami-Dade grand jury probes troubled ALFs," Miami Herald, 2011
            [view or download]
  • "Chased by watchdogs, ALF bites back," Miami Herald, 2011
            [view or download]
  • "Florida curtails effort to police ALFs," Miami Herald, 2011
            [view or download]
  • "Marine dies at North Miami ALF," Miami Herald, 2011
            [view or download]
  • "Indictment, fines didn’t stop ALF operator," Miami Herald, 2011
            [view or download]
       
  • "Troubled Miami-Dade ALF finally shut down," Miami Herald, 2011
            [view or download]
  • "Lawmakers: Regulators need to crack down on ALFS," Miami Herald, 2011
            [view or download]
  • "State clamps down on 17 ALFs," Miami Herald, 2011
            [view or download]
  • "Program to protect elders undermined, feds say," Miami Herald, 2011
            [view or download]
  • Federal Administration on Aging Compliance Review of the State of Florida Long-Term Care Ombudsman Program
            [view or download]
  • 2001 Attorney General's Report on Family Cameras
            [view or download]
  • Honor the Deal, Protect our Seniors (prepared by the FJA)
            [view or download]
  • United States Government Accountability Office Report - Complexity of Private Investment Purchases in Nursing Homes, September 2010
            [view or download]
  • Articles regarding family cameras in Nursing Homes
            [view or download]
  • "Pennsylvania Nursing Home Workers Caught Abusing Woman on Hidden Camera," ABC News
            [view or download]
  • "The High Cost of Poor Care: The Financial Case for Prevention in American Nursing Homes" (prepared by the National Consumer Voice for Quality Long-Term Care)
            [view or download]
  • "Nursing Home Transparency Act, Despite Uncertainty of Consequences, Finally Becomes Law," by Lawrence R. Siegel, Joel R. Nied and Williams Mullen
            [view or download]
  • Federal Law providing for improved transparency of ownership of nursing homes information
            [view or download]
  • Photos of Elder Care abuse (public records; arranged randomly to protect the identity of the victims)
            [view or download]
  • Photos of Elder Care abuse (public records; arranged randomly to protect the identity of the victims)
            [view or download]
  • Photos of Elder Care abuse (public records; arranged randomly to protect the identity of the victims)
            [view or download]
  • Photos of Elder Care abuse (public records; arranged randomly to protect the identity of the victims)
            [view or download]
  • Photos of Elder Care abuse (public records; arranged randomly to protect the identity of the victims)
            [view or download]
  • Photos of Elder Care abuse (public records; arranged randomly to protect the identity of the victims)
            [view or download]

Child Booster Seat Legislation   

  • Child Booster Seat legislation position paper (prepared by SafeKids
            [view or download]
  • House Bill 3 by Reps Slosberg and Raschein
            [view or download]
  • Senate Bill 66 by Sen Altman
            [view or download]
  • State by State comparison of Child Booster Seat laws (prepared by SafeKids)
            [view or download]
  • "Do Booster Seats Make a Difference?" (prepared by SafeKids)
            [view or download]